Albert Speer (Mannheim, 1905 - London, 1981), a close friend of Hitler and a favorite architect of the regime, studied architecture in Karlsruhe, Munich and Berlin. In 1931 he joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). In 1937 he was declared Inspector General of Building of the Reich Capital, in 1942 Minister of Armament and Ammunition of the Army, and a year later Minister of Armament and War Production. The Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced him to 20 years in prison and he was in Spandau until 1966. Cliff has published his Memoirs (2002).