"You think that everything in the world would be there even when no one saw or they could be represented. But clearly only try to imagine for once what kind of essence of things would be that. As soon as they try, they are always imagining the world's image of a head, but never a world beyond representation. Realize, therefore, that the being of things consists in the form of representation. "
These words of Schopenhauer to his disbelieving students synthesize the thought of the great philosopher. Volker Spierling orderly and carefully shelled it, unraveling the basis of Schopenhauer's pessimistic thinking over all his work.